39 (Refer to FAA-CT-8080-2G, Figure 12.) The wind direction and velocity at KJFK is from
A. 180° true at 4 knots.
This is correct.
I don't know a single pilot who has ever seen a METAR after passing their written exam. It is one of the most hated sections of the ground school. The format is an anachronism from when weather information was transmitted by teletype and every character cost money and time. But the format is an ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) standard and the fields mean the same everywhere in the world.
SPECI KJFK 121853Z 18004KT 1/2SM FG R04/2200 OVC005 20/18 A3006
Wind is reported with five digits (18004KT) or six digits if the speed is greater than 99 knots. The first three digits indicate the direction the wind is blowing from in tens of degrees (180), relative to true north. If the wind is variable, it is reported as “VRB.” The last two (or three) digits indicate the speed of the wind in knots (04). If the winds are gusting, the letter “G” follows the wind speed (G26KT). After the letter “G,” the peak gust recorded is provided. If the wind direction varies more than 60° and the wind speed is greater than six knots, a separate group of numbers, separated by a “V,” will indicate the extremes of the wind directions.
Surface aviation weather observations (METARs) are a compilation of elements of the current weather at individual ground stations across the United States. (METAR is the MEteorological Terminal Aviation Routine weather report station network.)
Wikipedia is a good, concise source of METAR codes.
The first five codes are the significance (normal or special), the location, the observation time, the wind, and the visibility.